USMC MARTIAL ARTS CENTER OF EXCELLENCE - BROWN BELT MANUAL
This style allows subordinates to know why and what went into the decision-making process. Although this style only allows minimal participation from subordinates, it provides an avenue for better understanding, and when effectively used, it can further motivate those executing the plan. Remember, perception is the key. When leaders take subordinates into their confidence and foster two-way communication, trust and respect is formed both ways.
With this style, the leader presents a problem, gets suggestions and makes a decision. Good two-way communication between the leader and subordinates is paramount for this style. Leaders should discuss possible alternative solutions before making their decision. This leadership style promotes initiative and ingenuity among subordinates. When using this style, it is important that the leader's goals, objectives, and restrictions are clear to subordinates. The leader defines limits and allows subordinates to make decisions within those limits.
This style uses mission-type orders and guidelines to issue the leader's intent. The subordinate then executes the plan and performs all tasks both specified and implied with minimal supervision. This style hinges on the trust and confidence the leader places in his subordinates. Style Variance. Leadership styles will vary depending on the amount of authority the leader decides to use or delegate. For example, when a leader is dealing with inexperienced subordinates and has a mission to complete within a.
On the other hand, when a leader has multiple tasks to complete, the delegating style could be a good choice. To exercise good leadership, a Marine must be consistent; however, his leadership style must be flexible since no one style is applicable for all situations. It is unrealistic to think that one style of leadership can be used effectively to obtain the desired results in every situation. Command is the projection of the leader's personality. Leadership is closely related to one's personality.
A leadership style that works well for one may not work well for another.
Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP)
Leadership styles are most effective when they become an implementation of the leader's own philosophy and temperament and when they fit the situation, task and the Marines to be led. Marines should strive to promote all that is positive in their style of leading. Leadership styles will always change from Marine to Marine. The mission still remains the same and there is always more than one way to accomplish it.
No matter what the leadership styles, the most important aspect of leadership is to accomplish the mission and troop welfare. Whatever style is used, it must be flexible enough to meet any situation while providing for the needs of your Marines. One thing in common among great leaders is the ability to read how people will perceive a given order or action, and use the approach that will best communicate the leader's orders to subordinates.
Never be afraid to use different styles because the situation and those being led will never be the same twice. Be dynamic and be the best role-model mentally, morally and physically that you can be. Leaders today create the Corps of tomorrow. We must also lead in many difficult situations. Marines operate within a continuum of force on a daily basis, particularly in support of peacekeeping- or humanitarian-type missions. The neck crank takedown can be used to help you when that time comes.
The priority in ground fighting is to get back on your feet as quickly as possible. However, often a ground fight can be ended quickly by executing a choke on the opponent. Chokes are among the most dangerous techniques you will learn. When performed correctly, a choke can render an opponent unconscious in as little as eight to thirteen seconds. Chokes can be easily performed regardless of size or gender. Chokes can be applied from the standing or on the ground.
This lesson will cover the techniques for executing black belt level triangle choke from the guard and the process of sustaining the transformation we all undergo throughout our career. The learning objectives pertaining to this lesson are as follows: a.
Have them fill out the IRFs after the completion of the period of instruction. This lesson will be evaluated by performance and oral evaluations. Regardless of the environment, the purpose of this technique is to apply it quickly and get back on your feet to gain the tactical advantage. We will begin by discussing these principles as well as the safety precautions inherent in training the technique. Introduction to black belt chokes. Just as every other ground technique we have learned up to this point the purpose of this technique is to apply it and quickly get back on your feet to gain the tactical advantage.
To prevent injury to students during training, ensure the following: 1 Never execute a choke at full force or full speed during training because the carotid artery could collapse. The student taps out by firmly tapping his hand several times on any part of the opponents body that will get his attention. The student should never go to the point of becoming light headed during a choke. During training ensure students apply the procedures properly for blood chokes and do not execute an air choke. Triangle Choke. In this scenario, the opponent is trying to pass your guard and thus gain the tactical advantage.
Training the technique. To teach the triangle choke from the guard position, direct the students as follows: 1 Begin by lying on your back with the opponent kneeling between your legs in your guard. Confirm by questions and practice. Guillotine Choke. This technique is performed when your opponent is trying to tackle you by grabbing both your legs or around the waist and forcing you to the ground to gain a tactical advantage.
To teach the technique by having the students start in the standing position this technique can be performed from either the standing or the ground , direct the students as follows. Training the technique while on the ground. The triangle choke, as well as other aspects of Ground Fighting, is not the preferred means of combat.
However, you must train the techniques so they are learned and executed at an instinctive level. We will now discuss the perpetuation of the character discipline that allows the warrior to thrive in our Corps: Sustaining the Transformation. Our Corps does two things for America: we make Marines and we win our nations battles. Our proficiency at the latter directly affects our ability to successfully accomplish the latter.
We make Marines through a process called transformation. During this process, we change young mens lives and young womens lives forever by imbuing them with our nations highest ideals. Since the birth of our Corps, Marines have been forged in the crucible of our entry-level training, whether it is recruit training or Officer Candidate School. Like those who mustered at Tan Tavern in , todays young men and women enlist in the Corps because they seek adventure and the challenge of being a Marine.
Through the years, we have refined and strengthened this process in pursuit of increasingly higher standards. Those who earn the title Marine have been polished and honed by attentive mentoring and the application of our time proven leadership traits and principles. Transformation does not end at the conclusion of entry-level training; it continues throughout a Marines servicewhether that service ends after a single enlistment or lasts 30 years. Marines maintain standards that are consistent with our core values of honor, courage, and commitment, and they are held accountable for maintaining the legacy of valor established by the sacrifices of those Marines who preceded them.
Let us now look at the five phases of Sustainment so that we better understand the process. The first phase of the transformation process begins with our recruiters. Recruiters carefully screen the young people who come to our door seeking admittance. Those who have solid character, good moral standards, and personal values are those we embrace and validate. We reinforce the values they hold. Those with undamaged characters, but who are among our societys many empty vessels, we fill with the ideals and values they so desperately need and seek.
We evaluate each candidate based on the whole person and decide on acceptance or rejection through an analysis of risk versus potential. During recruitment, we make it clear who they are joining and what it is they are expected to become. The Marine recruiter is their mentor and he or she launches their transformation. The recruiter introduces Poolees to the concept of total fitness body, mind, and spirit in our improved delayed-entry program. Poolees are better prepared when they reach recruit training because they receive their first introduction to our core values, enhanced physical conditioning, knowledge of our history and traditions, and study guides that facilitate their transformation.
The second phase of transformation takes place during recruit training and officer candidate school. During this phase, we prepare all Marinesmale and female, those destined for combat arms, and those destined for combat service or combat service support to fight on the nonlinear chaotic battlefield of the future. During the second phase, the drill instructor becomes the next person to transform the life of the young person desirous to earn the title Marine. The drill instructor is still the backbone of the recruit training process, and he serves as a role model as recruits accelerate in their transformation.
Much of the transformation process occurs during recruit training. Recruit training is only the second of five phases in the process. The third phase of the transformation process is the strengthening of the cohesion that was born during recruit training, the cohesion that binds Marines together. We define cohesion as the intense bonding of Marines, strengthened over time, resulting in absolute trust, subordination of self, an intuitive understanding of the collective actions of the unit, and appreciation for the importance of teamwork. However, cohesion cannot simply exist among peers. Of equal importance is the manner by which individual Marines and their teams identify with their units.
The cohesion of a larger unit is the result of several teams of Marines joining for a common mission. All leaders must make unit cohesion one of their highest priorities and principal objectives. The more we reinforce the cohesion of our units, the stronger our units will be and the easier it will be to reinforce individual core values through positive peer pressure, mentoring, and leadership.
The fourth phase of transformation is Sustainment. Sustainment is continuous, and it will span all we do as Marines throughout our service. Our professional military education schools are designed to educate our leadersour officers, Staff NCOs, and NCOs in whole Marine character development.
Leaders in the operating forces and in the supporting establishment accomplish their missions in ways that support and reinforce our core values and foster team building. Leaders will manifest our core values and mentor their subordinates. We will live our ethos through a shared responsibility for all Marines that lasts until the day a Marine hangs up the uniform for the last time. The fifth phase of transformation is citizenship. Beyond preparing young Marines to win in combat, what truly distinguish our legacy to our nation are the citizens we produce citizens transformed by their Marine experience and.
As Marines, they have learned a nobler way of life, they are able to draw from their experiences, and they are prepared to be leaders within the Corps and within their communities and businesses. During the making of a Marine, our nations most tangible benefit comes to fruition during the fifth phase, and that is citizenship.
We produce citizens with our core valuesthe highest ideals in the American characterand place them in an environment where they are held accountable for those values. Nearly 70 percent of all Marines are first-term enlistees. While a few will remain and provide our critical NCO and staff NCO leadership, most have other aspirations and they will depart the active ranks upon completion of 4 years of faithful service.
Approximately 20, Marines leave the Corps each year. Nonetheless, they will always be United States Marines. The responsibility of being a Marine does not end when they leave our active ranks. In many respects, it only just begins. Be it a 4year enlistment or a year career, we all must become Former Marines eventually. We have every reason to take great pride in our service.
We have done something that few Americans today ever consider doingwe have sacrificed our personal comfort and liberties for the health and needs of the nation. In return, we were imbued with time-tested values of honor, courage, and commitment that provide the foundation for personal success in any endeavor. These values serve as a moral compass as we return to school or join the workforce, and these values will make us leaders in our universities, workplaces, and communities.
Cohesion is the intense bonding of Marines, strengthened over time, which results in absolute trust. It is characterized by the subordination of self and an intuitive understanding of the collective actions of the unit and of the importance of teamwork, resulting in increased combat power. Cohesion is achieved by fostering positive peer pressure and reinforcing our core values to the point that our core values become dominant over self-interest.
There are five components of cohesion, they are: a. Individual Morale. As leaders, we must know our Marines and look out for their welfare. Leaders who understand that morale, only morale, individual morale as a foundation under training and discipline, will bring victory15 are more likely to keep morale high among individual Marines. A high state of morale, in turn, enhances unit cohesion and combat effectiveness.
Confidence in the Units Combat Capability. Marines confidence in their units combat capability is gained through unit training. The longer Marines serve and train together in a unit, the more effective they become and the more confident they are in their units capabilities. They know what their unit can do because they have worked together before. Keeping Marines together through unit cohesion is a combat multiplier.
Rarely do those who maintain confidence in their. Success in battle can be directly attributed to a units overall confidence in its level of performance. Of course, the opposite also holds true; lack of cohesion, lack of confidence, and poor performance preordain a units failure. If the history of military organizations proves any-thing, it is that those units that are told they are second-class will almost inevitably prove that they are second-class.
Confidence in Unit Leaders. Confidence in unit leaders abilities is earned as Marines spend time in the company of their seniors and learn to trust them. Leaders must earn the respect of their Marines, and doing so takes time. As Marines develop confidence, based on their prior achievements, in their units ability to accomplish their assigned missions, they also develop confidence in their leaders as they work and train together. Horizontal Cohesion.
Horizontal cohesion, also known as peer bonding, takes place among peers. It is the building of a sense of trust and familiarity between individuals of the same rank or position. Sense of mission; teamwork; personnel stability; technical and tactical proficiency; trust, respect, and friendship are some elements that contribute to peer bonding. An example of horizontal cohesion is the relationship between members of a fire team. Over time, each member develops a sense of trust in the other. This trust is born of several elements. The first is a common sense of mission, the act of placing personal goals aside to pursue the goals of the entire team.
Other elements include teamwork and personnel stability. Teamwork is the result of mutual support provided by each member of the team. Teamwork is further enhanced by personnel stability, which promotes familiar and effective working relationships. Perhaps most important is the development of tactical and technical proficiency that continues to support and reinforce the trust and respect between the team members.
When our young Marines are thrust deep into the chaotic battle space, often operating in small teams, their will to fight and ultimately succeed will hinge upon their ability to fight as an effective, cohesive team. Vertical Cohesion. Vertical cohesion is not new to our Corps; this dimension of cohesion involves the vertical relationship between subordinate and senior.
Vertical cohesion is what draws peer groups into a cohesive unit, such as a battalion or squadron. It is, in part, the building of a mutual sense of trust and respect among individuals of different rank or position. Additionally, vertical cohesion is the sense of belonging that the squad or section maintains relative to its role in the battalion or squadron. Some characteristics of vertical cohesion include unit pride and history, leaders concern for the Marines, leaders example, trust and respect for leaders, and shared discomfort and danger.
An example of vertical cohesion is when many squads and sections come together to form a cohesive company. Each of these subordinate units plays a different role in the company; however, vertical cohesion draws them together in purpose and mutual. This sense of unity has several elements. The first is a common sense of unit pride and history pride not only in themselves as a unit, but also pride in those who have gone before them. The organizational memory of their past achievements drives the unit to still greater heights.
Another element that contributes to vertical cohesion is the quality of leadership and the command climate in the unit. Vertical cohesion is stronger in units with effective, well-trained subordinate leaders. Leaders that show concern for their Marines and lead by example will earn the trust and respect of their subordinates. Another element of vertical cohesion includes shared discomfort and danger, which can occur during shared training. Mutual Support of Horizontal and Vertical Cohesion. Since the birth of our Corps, Marine units have evidenced horizontal and vertical cohesion to varying degrees and with varying success.
However, it is vitally important that these two qualities be developed in combination with each other. Just as the strength of combined arms comes from the combined effects of two or more different arms that mutually support one another, the strength of horizontal and vertical cohesion derives from the combined effects and mutual support they provide each other. Blending vertical cohesion and horizontal cohesion ensures a strong, universal sense of bonding and teamwork among various types of units. If vertical and horizontal cohesion are mutually supported, all these units will be composed of Marines who trust and respect each other.
Each type of bond reinforces the other. The figure on slide 5 depicts that to truly sustain the transformation, we must combine both the vertical cohesion axis and horizontal cohesion axis to achieve our goal of combat readiness. A unit capable of combining vertical and horizontal cohesion is far stronger than a unit that is strong in only a single axis. In this lesson you have learned yet another technique to help you achieve victory if you are in a close combat situation that goes to the ground.
Your effective application of this technique can help you quickly get back to your feet. Likewise, your effective sustainment of the transformation enables you to continue to thrive as one of the Worlds Finest, a US Marine. Often in a martial arts situation, your opponent may apply a choke or hold on you. Chokes and holds put you in a vulnerable position. Using techniques to get out of those techniques is the purpose of training in the program.
Being held down physically or emotionally is a stressful burden to have, and it is always helpful to have a technique or a person there to help you get out of that situation. A hold will allow your opponent to control you and thus remove your ability to attack. An emotional hold will do the same, taking away your ability to succeed, but having a mentor in your life to learn from and pull you out of bad situations is definitely a better path to walk down. It is important to identify mentors in our lives and to be a positive mentor to others. This lesson will cover the techniques for executing the black belt rolling knee bar.
This class will be taught lecture, demonstration, and practical application. As mentioned earlier in your training you are very vulnerable while in your opponents hold. So you must escape your opponents hold as quickly as possible. That brings us to this period of instruction, which will help you accomplish that mission. The purpose of the rolling knee bar is to escape from an opponents rear bear hug. This technique requires that your arms remain free. To prevent injuries to students, ensure the following: 1 Select a training area with soft footing such as a sandy or grassy area.
A hard surface area is not appropriate for training counters to chokes and holds. As discussed earlier if you are ever trapped in your opponents hold you are in a very vulnerable situation. Therefore you must break free of this hold as quickly as possible and take the tactical advantage. The Rolling Knee bar. This technique is used if an opponent comes up from behind, attempts a bear hug leaving your arms free. To train the rolling knee: 1 The aggressor executes a rear bear hug leaving your arms free. Keep your knees bent and pinched together so you can control the aggressors upper leg. Apply slow, steady pressure for the submission with your training partner.
Thrust your hips forward quickly while yanking back on the enemy combatants leg for joint destruction. Explain each step. Demonstrate each step. Allow students to imitate that step as you explain it one more time. After all steps are explained, demonstrated, and imitated, allow time for students to practice the entire procedures on your command. Allow students practice time during the practical application until they are proficient in the technique. When instructing technique, have students fall into staggered columns to ensure appropriate space is provided between each pair of students.
Fault check students performance. Enforce safety precautions. This technique, if practiced repetitively, is very effective in a situation of being held down or put in some sort of hold. Now the emotional hold life can bring us is also something we must prepare for, with the help of our mentors. Working with other Marines is the Marine leader's school.
This quote is at the very heart of what mentoring is all about. Mentoring is a formal or informal program that links junior Marines with more experienced Marines for the purposes of career development and professional growth, through sharing knowledge and insights that have been learned through the years. As such mentoring should be looked at as another method to develop subordinate leaders and ensure the legacy of our past continues unbroken into the future.
There are two roles that are important to the Mentoring Program. The mentor is a teacher, guide, sponsor, motivator, counselor, coach, door opener, role model, and referral agent. A junior Marine who voluntarily accepts tutelage from a more senior Marine for the purpose of enhancing skills and professional development. The protg is willing, active, accepting, respectful, professional, and prepared. It is primarily the mentor's responsibility to ensure the mentoring connection is kept on a professional level.
The command should know that the mentor and protg, if in the same unit, are working together to improve the protg. Don't hide the connection. Be open and above board in all actions. Strictly adhere to the guidelines contained in the Marine Corps Manual. You have just learned yet another technique to aide in freeing yourself from an opponents hold. This technique performed correctly with aggression can quickly free you and give you the upper hand over your opponent. Mentoring can also be a powerful tool to ensure that all Marines perform to the best of their abilities, have opportunities for advancement and self-improvement, and can contribute to the success of the Corps.
By definition, a mentor is a trusted counselor or guide; although not specifically mentioned in General Lejeune's comments, the concept of mentoring as a leadership tool was surely applicable then and is certainly applicable now. Imagine you are in an unfamiliar area in an urban environment and you turn a corner and a gun is pointed directly at your head.
Would you know what to do? Would your reaction time be quick enough to counter the situation? Firearm disarmament techniques are designed to counter such a confrontation while permitting you to gain the tactical advantage against an adversary. This lesson will cover firearm disarmament techniques including safety precautions inherent in training and techniques to counter an adversary armed with a pistol.
Topics from this lesson will be evaluated orally, written, and performance evaluation. Now, we will cover the safety precautions used when training this technique and a basic introduction. To prevent injury during training, ensure the following: 1 Have the students perform the technique slowly at first and the speed and power with proficiency. Introduction to Fir Arm Disarmament. Firearm disarmament techniques are designed to counter a close-range confrontation in which you are unarmed and your opponent has a firearm pistol.
These techniques are equally effective if you are armed but do not have time to react to draw and present your weapon. The object of firearm disarmament techniques is not to necessarily get control of the opponents weapon, but to get control of the situation so you gain the tactical advantage.
So far we have discussed the safeties and principles to fire arm disarmament, are there any questions? Pistol to the Head two handed. This technique is performed when you are unarmed and your opponent has a pistol pointing at your head. The pistol must be in close distance to you for this technique to be affective. To teach the counter when a pistol is pointing toward your head, have the student: 1 Begin at close range with the aggressor pointing a pistol at your head. The aggressor is holding the pistol with both hands. Place your hands as close to the weapon as possible without raising the aggressors suspicion.
Make a submissive verbal statement. At the same time, drop your body and head down quickly, bending your knees. You must do this at the same time to double your distance from the barrel of the pistol and to clear your head out of the line of fire. Rotate your torso and thrust your hip into him to off-balance him. Make sure the muzzle is never pointed at you and that you keep your hand clear of it. Turn toward him, perform an expedient press check, and prepare for follow-on actions c.
Pistol to the Head one handed. The aggressor is holding the pistol with the right hand, left arm down. Rotate your torso and thrust your hip into him to offbalance him. When a weapon is at your head, making a good, fast, decision could be the difference between life and death. Making tactical decisions in combat works the same way. It cannot be too often repeated that in modern war, and especially in modern naval war, the chief factor in achieving triumph is what has been done in the way of thorough preparation and training before the beginning of war.
Theodore Roosevelt There is a critical need for all Marines to prepare themselves mentally and physically for the rigors of combat. Physical preparation has long been ingrained in our culture and Marines are well known for their physical conditioning. Mental preparation needs to receive the same emphasis. Since success in combat depends in large part on our collective capability to make and execute effective military decisions under physical and emotional stress, it is imperative that all Marines make every effort to exercise and develop their decision making abilities.
We will now discuss some of the elements that make up the decision making process. Military Judgment. How do we make a decision? There is no easy answer to that question; each battle will have its own unique answers. As with so much in warfare, it depends on the situation. No formula, process, acronym, or buzzword can provide the answer. Rather, the answer is in military judgment, in the ability of the leader to understand the battlefield and act decisively.
Military judgment is a developed skill that is honed by the wisdom gained through experience. Combined with situational awareness, military judgment allows us to identify emerging patterns, discern critical vulnerabilities, and concentrate combat power. Understanding the Situation. The first requirement of a leader is to understand the situation. The successful tactician studies the situation to develop in his mind a clear picture of what is happening, how it got that way, and how it might further develop.
Considering the factors of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available-time available METT-T-S-L , the leader must think through all actions, determine the desired result, and ascertain the means to achieve that result. Part of the leaders thinking should also include assuming the role of the enemy, considering what the enemys best course of action may be, and deciding how to defeat it. Thinking through these elements helps the leader develop increased situational awareness. Based on this understanding of the situation, the leader can begin to form a mental image of how the battle might be fought.
Central to the leaders thinking must be the question, In this situation, what efforts will be decisive? The leader asks this question not just once, but repeatedly as the battle progresses. The leader must also address possible outcomes and the new situations that will result from those possibilities. As the situation changes, so will the solution and the actions that derive from it. For every situation, the leader must decide which of the countless and often confusing pieces of information are important and reliable. The leader must determine what the enemy is trying to do and how to counter his efforts.
Tactics requires leaders to make decisions. A leader must make decisions in a constantly changing environment of friction, uncertainty, and danger. Making effective decisions and acting on those decisions faster than the enemy is a crucial element of Marine Corps tactics. Acting Decisively. Our ability to understand the situation is useless if we are not prepared to act decisively.
When the opportunity arrives, we must exploit it fully and aggressively, committing every ounce of combat power we can muster and pushing ourselves to the limits of exhaustion. The keys to this effort are identifying enemy critical vulnerabilities, shaping the operating area to our advantage, designating a main effort to focus our combat power, and acting in a bold and ruthless manner.
As Marine leaders, whether of fire teams or of a Marine Expeditionary Force, we are responsible for achieving success. In combat, the success we seek is victorynot merely a partial or marginal outcome that forestalls the final reckoning, but a victory that settles the issue in our favor. To be victorious, we must work ceaselessly in peacetime to develop in ourselves a talent for military judgmentthe ability to understand a situation and act decisively.
Military judgment results from the wisdom gained from experience. It allows us to identify patterns of activity and to concentrate our efforts against a critical vulnerability that will bend the enemy to our will. We must sharpen our ability to make decisions intuitively based on our understanding of the situation. How can we do this? Two means by which decision making skills could be developed are through the use of tactical decision games and through daily discussions about warfighting.
This is outlined in MCO It is designed to make mental development a component of our daily training. Everything we do in peacetime should prepare us for combat. Our preparation for combat depends upon training and education that develop the action and thought essential to battle. Knowledge gained through individual reading and study provides the intellectual framework for warfighting study and the raw material necessary to develop critical thinking skills.
This Order outlines the means to hone that raw material by daily exercise. Decisions made in war must frequently be made under physical and emotional duress. Our mental exercises in peacetime should replicate some of the same conditions. Imaginative combinations of physical and mental activities provide Marines the opportunity to make decisions under conditions of physical stress and fatigue, thereby more closely approximating combat.
Some of the types of training and education that will hone our tactical decision making skills are: Professional Reading and Historical Study: This includes the professional reading program and PME. War gaming: This includes Tactical Decision Games located in the Gazette and Leatherneck magazines, Commercial board-based war games, and computer based war games available either commercially or from the Marine Corps Modeling and Simulation and Management Office.
Discussion and Case Study: This should be accomplished each day by the open discussion of warfighting concepts. It follows, then, that the leader who would become a competent tactician must first close his mind to the alluring formulae that well-meaning people offer in the name of victory. To master his difficult art he must learn to cut to the heart of a situation, recognize its decisive elements and base his course of action on these.
The decisions you make in the future will affect more than just you. Your preparation decides the outcome. To be prepared for combat in todays Marine Corps, the Marine must be prepared to react to an armed confrontation at close range. In this instance, the Marine may not be armed or he does not have time to withdraw and present his weapon.
Would the Marine know what to do? Would his reaction time be quick enough to successfully counter the situation? The Marine must react quickly and decisively if an opponent points a weapon at him at close range. Through firearm disarmament training conducted by a qualified Martial Arts Instructor Trainer, the Marine will have the skills necessary to counter such a confrontation and gain the tactical advantage.
The worst possible scenario in combat is when you find yourself unarmed. You have to rely on your body to survive and accomplish the mission. You have to be able to fight with your bare hands until you can gain a weapon to aid you. The strikes you will learn today will help you in these situations. As we learn to develop our physical skills, we will also learn about instilling and developing values. The purpose of this period of instruction is to teach you upper body strikes, when to use them, and how to make them the most effective. We will also discuss instilling and developing values.
This class will be taught by lecture, demonstration, EDIP and practical application. Probe Students Now, we will cover an introduction to these strikes and the safety precautions used when training them. The purpose of strikes is to stun the opponent or to set them up for a follow-up finishing technique. Strikes are unarmed individual striking techniques that are performed with the arms and legs as personal weapons. To train the strikes, have students: 1 The hands, forearms, and elbows are individual weapons of the arms that can be used to execute strikes including the hammer fist, knife hand, chin jab, eye gouge, elbow strikes, cupped hand strike and the face smash.
Principles of Execution. Regardless of the strike, there are several principles of execution that ensure its effectiveness. In executing an effective strike, it is important to generate maximum power by: a Rotating the hips and shoulders into the attack. Body mass can be transferred into an attack from high to low or from low to high. To be effective, these techniques must be executed instinctively and delivered with maximum power. There should be muscular tension in the hand and forearm at the moment of impact to maximize damage to the opponent and to avoid injury to your hand.
The arms are relaxed until the moment of impact. A strike should be delivered so that the weapon e. This technique will inflict maximum damage on the opponent. Your movement will put you in the proper position for launching an attack against your opponent as well as to assist in the generation of power. Movement is initiated from the basic warrior stance and ends with resuming the basic warrior stance. Each strike can be performed with either the left or right arm depending upon:.
Target Areas of the Body. For each strike, there are target areas of the body which, when struck, maximize damage to an opponent. Strikes use gross motor skills as opposed to fine motor skills. The target areas of the body are just that - areas. Pinpoint accuracy on a specific nerve is not needed for the strike to be effective.
To prevent injuries to students, train the practical application portion of strikes in three stages: 1 Begin with students executing the strikes "in the air. When striking an object e. So far, weve covered the basics of these strikes and the safeties we need to train them. Probe Students Now lets get into the techniques. Cupped Hand Strike. Striking with the cupped hand concentrates power in a small part of the hand which, when transferred to the target, can have a devastating effect.
The striking surface of the cupped hand strike is primarily the palm of the hand. The cupped hand strike is an excellent technique to use against the neck, the face, the head, the ribs, the groin, and kidneys. To train the cupped hand strike, have students: 1 From the basic warrior stance, open your right hand about halfway, keeping your fingers and thumb together. Your arm is bent at approximately a to 90 degree angle. At the same time, rotate your right hip and right shoulder backward. Angles of Attack. The cupped hand can be thrown horizontally or vertically: 1 When thrown horizontally, cupped hand strike gets its power from a rotation of the hips and shoulder.
Striking with the face smash concentrates power in a small part of the hand which, when transferred to the target, can have a devastating effect. Striking Surface.
The striking surface is primarily the palm of the hand, and secondarily, the fingertips. The face smash is an excellent technique to use against the face. To train the face smash, have students: a From the basic warrior stance open your right hand. Spread and slightly bend your fingers with muscular tension. The hand looks like it could be holding a grapefruit at this stage.
Immediately bring your right foot up to resume the basic warrior stance. Angle of Attack. The face smash is executed vertically: a When thrown vertically, the face smash comes straight down in an arcing motion, the face smash gets its power from:  Moving your body in a linear line by taking a forceful step forward with the left foot, pushing off on the ball of the right foot. The striking surface for these strikes is the palm of your hand. Just as these striking surfaces, the values and beliefs of your young Marines rest in the palm of your hands. No commander lacking in this inner knowledge of his men can accomplish great things.
Every leadership effort is effected by the relationship between the values of the leader and those of the led. Values are the keystone to motivation because they influence an individuals perceptions and attitudes. To be effective leaders, we must truly appreciate the importance of values in understanding human behavior. We must not only know our own values, but must also be able to assess the similarities and differences of our Marines values. Let us review what values are.
Since we first became Marines we have learned how values effect and shape our character. We know that our set of values determines how we view right from wrong. Values are basic ideas about the worth or importance of people, concepts or things. Values influence your behavior because you use them to weigh the importance of alternatives. For example, a person who values personal pleasure more than he values a trim, healthy body continually makes choices between eating and exercising that will ultimately result in his becoming overweight and out of shape.
Along with values go attitudes. They are an individuals or groups feelings toward something or someone, and are usually expressed as likes and dislikes. Attitudes could possibly be values in the making. A good example of this is when a dislike becomes a prejudice. The reverse of this is how our values can have a direct effect on our attitude.
For example, if you value honesty and work with two Marines, one who is very reliable and the other who stretches the truth you will probably have a more positive attitude towards the first one. In this case your values have influenced your attitude. What does values have to do with leadership? Values are the benchmark of leadership.
They are guides to our thinking and behavior and that of our Marines. If a Marine is left without guidance or supervision his personal values will determine what the Marine will or will not do. But what can we do about those values the Marine brought with him into the Marine Corps that are not always compatible with Marine Corps values. Each of us, both leader and led, have been influenced over or lives by others which have helped shape or values and attitudes.
Over time it becomes harder to shape a persons values. As a leader one way we can do this is by reinforcing the positive behavioral habits through discipline. This changes the individuals attitude towards a given idea until it becomes a value. For example,. As a leader you have the power to influence the beliefs and values of your Marines by setting the example, by rewarding behavior that supports military values and attitudes and by planning and conducting tough individual and unit training.
By doing this leaders provide guidance and supervision reinforce organizational values and control effect behavior to their Marines. Probe Students Your guidance is what molds them. When the leader understands the development and role of values and attitudes he is in a more favorable position to deal with the problems of his Marines.
When he realizes that his Marines will not always act and react as he does, or that they will not understand things or feel the same about them as he does, the leader can approach new situations and his Marines more intelligently. Part of this understanding is that values and attitudes are learned. As leaders we must teach our Marines the proper values and attitudes both by our actions, through education and counseling, and by supervision and discipline.
In this way the group values of the Marine Corps become the individual Marines values. Along with teaching our Marines, we must continue to learn and improve ourselves. The strikes that you learned today are valuable assists for your arsenal. The only way to maintain and improve them is by constant sustainment and practice time. When armed with a rifle, the Marine is issued a bayonet; when armed with a pistol, the Marine is issued a fighting knife.
To be truly prepared for combat, the Marine must be trained in knife combat techniques should the situation arise. Knife fighting is an art. With knife combat, the objective and the focus of your instruction is to provide Marines with the knowledge, experience, and commitment to cause enough damage and massive trauma to stop an opponent and end an engagement. This instruction will cover lead hand, and reverse grip knife techniques. As Marines, we must train as we would fight in combat. Realistic training is the only way we can prepare ourselves for such events; however, we cannot recklessly risk our Marines lives for that training.
That is where operational risk management ORM comes into effect. This lesson will cover knife techniques including angles of attack; target areas of the body; grip, stance, movement; vertical slash, vertical thrust, forward slash, reverse slash, forward thrust, and reverse thrust for lead hand knife techniques.
We will also cover reverse grip: forward and reverse slash, and forward and reverse thrust. As well as discuss the importance of ORM. Topics from this lesson will be evaluated by performance and oral examination when requirements are met. We will begin with a review of knife fighting including the purpose and the associated safeties we must observe during training. Purpose of Knife Fighting.
The purpose of knife fighting is to cause massive damage and trauma to stop an opponent. Safety Equipment. To safely conduct knife training, each student should be provided a training knife, eye protection, and groin protection. To prevent injury to students during training, ensure the following: 1 Ensure students do not execute the techniques at full speed or with full body contact. At this stage, students should focus on acquiring skills. Both the 55 MIN. There should be no contact between students at this stage. The opponent should counter the attack with appropriate blocks.
Explain and demonstrate the knife techniques using EDIP. Allow students to imitate the techniques. Provide practice of the techniques at the end of this lesson. Before covering knife techniques, we must first review the basics of knife combat including angles of attack, target areas, movement, grip, stance, and principles. There are six angles from which an attack with a knife can be launched: Vertical strike coming straight down on an opponent.
Forward diagonal strike coming in at a degree angle to the opponent. Reverse diagonal strike coming in at a degree angle to the opponent. Forward horizontal strike coming in parallel to the deck. Reverse horizontal strike coming in parallel to the deck. Forward thrust coming in a straight linear line to the opponent. In any confrontation, the parts of the opponent's body that are exposed or readily accessible will vary.
The goal in a knife engagement is to attack soft body vital targets that are readily accessible such as the face, the sides and front of the neck, and the lower abdomen or groin. Consider a degree circle around an opponent. You can move anywhere in this circle to gain a tactical advantage and make accessible different target areas of your opponent's body. The opponent can rely on his forward momentum and linear power to create a tactical advantage. Moving at a degree angle is the best way to both avoid an opponent's strike and to put yourself in the best position to attack an opponent.
Your grip on the knife should be natural. Grasp the knife's grip with your fingers wrapped around the grip naturally as it is pulled out of its sheath. This is commonly known as a hammer grip; the blade tip of the knife is always facing the opponent. Principles of Knife Combat 1 Always execute movements with the knife blade within a box, shoulderwidth across from your neck down to your waistline.
The opponent has a greater chance of blocking your attack if you bring the blade in a wide sweeping movement to the opponent. Your attacks should close with the opponent, coming straight to your target. Always move with the knife in linear lines. Full body weight should be put into the attack in the direction of the blade's movement slash or thrust. Applying constant forward pressure with your body and blade will keep the opponent off-balanced.
There are two basic knife techniques: Slashing and thrusting. But how many different ways can you employ them? I will show you a couple of different ways they can be employed, starting from the lead hand position. Purpose: The purposes for lead-hand knife is to give you the ability to use more speed than power, it also gives you more space between you and the enemy especially if he or she is armed with an edged weapon.
Stance: Your stance will be slightly different than your normal modified basic warrior stance. It will also be used to strike when bulldogging your opponent. This position serves as an index point, where all lead-hand techniques are initiated. The weapon will be held approximately chest high, to belt level inside your box. Slashing Techniques. Slashing techniques are used to close with an enemy. Slashing techniques distract the opponent or cause enough damage to close with him. Targets are usually the limbs or any portion of the body that is presented.
The slashing motion follows a vertical line straight down through the target. To train the vertical slashing technique, have the student: a Stand in the modified basic warrior stance facing the aggressor. A forward slash follows a horizontal line in a forehand stroke, across the target areas of either the neck high slash or abdominal region low slash. To train the forward slashing technique, have the student: a Stand in the modified basic warrior stance facing the aggressor.
A reverse slash follows a horizontal line in a backhand stroke, across the target areas of either the neck high slash or abdominal region low slash. To train the reverse slashing technique, have the student: a Stand in the modified basic warrior stance facing the aggressor. Rotate your wrist palm down. Maintain contact on his body with the blade of the knife. Thrusting Techniques. The primary objective when fighting with a knife is to insert the blade into an opponent to cause massive damage and trauma.
This is done with a thrusting technique. Thrusting techniques are more effective than slashing techniques because of the damage they can cause. However, slashing techniques are used to close with the enemy to get in proximity where a thrusting technique can be used. The thrusting motion follows a vertical line straight up through the target low into the abdomen region or high into the neck. Combat will test your ability to endure hardship. Marines must be conditioned to withstand the effects of weather. Recall the experience of Captain Barrow in Korea.
Extreme weather conditions offer a distinct advantage to the side best prepared to continue fighting amidst such hardships. Training in adverse weather will build confidence in your Marines' ability to care for weapons, equipment, and themselves. Remember, merely enduring is not enough; they must be able to use adverse conditions to their advantage to fight.
Drill is the beginning of the process that turns an uncoordinated group of individuals into a tight military unit. Drill produces a habit of prompt obedience to orders and instills pride, a sense of unity, and discipline. The habit of responsiveness that is developed through drill will help carry the unit through the terrifying moments when the shock of enemy fire is first felt.
Hopefully with the training and practice time, a Marine has the confidence to make a sound decision if confronted by multiple attackers and engagements. A Marine should also have the mental, character discipline to train these techniques to be force in readiness. That fighting consisted of grenades, firing rounds while closing, bayonets and even knives. During these engagements there were Marines confronted with multiple attackers and engagements. The techniques you learned today along with your combat readiness will give you the best chance to survive "multiple attacker" engagements and continue to fight the battle.
The last thing you want to do in a combative engagement is go to the ground. However, in many close combat scenarios the fight ends up on the ground. This is a bad place to be, because in combat, you could easily be outnumbered. In addition, the battlefield may be covered with debris and you run the risk of getting injured on the ground. The priority in a ground fight is to get back on your feet as quickly as possible.
The techniques covered here will allow you to get back to your feet while severely limiting your opponents ability to get back up and continue the engagement effectively. This lesson will cover the techniques for instructing offensive ground fighting techniques including the bent arm-bar from the side-mount, basic leg lock from the guard, and the importance of developing as citizens.
Topics from this lesson will be evaluated by performance test. Ground fighting techniques can be complicated to learn because there are numerous movements in each technique. Mastery of the skills requires extensive practice. We will begin with an introduction to ground fighting and the safety precautions inherent in training. In any close combat situation, the fight may end up on the ground.
The purpose of ground fighting is to provide techniques that allow you to get back on your feet as quickly as possible. Overview of Ground Fighting Techniques. In any ground fighting scenario, you will usually end up in one of four positions with the opponent: mount, guard, 85 MIN. The mount and guard positions are offensive in that you have the tactical advantage. To prevent injury to students during training, ensure the following: 1 Have students perform the technique slowly at first, and increase the speed of execution as they become more proficient.
Confirm by questions. We covered the purpose of this lesson, your learning objectives, how you will be taught the lesson, how and when you will be evaluated. Are there any questions at this time? To become proficient as a Martial Arts Instructor Trainer, you must be able to perform the techniques for ground fighting, you must understand and be able to apply fault checking techniques, and you must enforce safety precautions. We will begin by covering the technique for the mount position.
Explain each step. Demonstrate each step. Allow students to imitate that step as you explain it one more time. After all steps are explained, demonstrated, and imitated, allow time for students to practice the entire procedures on your command. Allow students practice time until they are proficient in the technique.
Bent Armbar. This technique can be executed from many positions, but we will focus on executing this technique from the side mount position, while the opponent uses his free hand to attempt an eye gouge. Training the Technique. To teach the bent armbar have the students:. Position yourself in the right side-mount position, chest to chest with the aggressor. We have covered the bent arm bar from the side mount, are there any questions before we go on?
Basic Leg Lock. This technique can be executed when you are in your opponents guard, prior to him locking his ankles together. In this scenario, the opponent is attempting to gain the superior position. To teach the basic leg lock, have the students: 1 Begin in the aggressors guard without him locking his ankles together.
Maintain pressure on his leg, pinning it to the ground with your left hand until you replace your hand with your left foot in step five. A strike to the opponents groin region is encouraged if it is exposed. With your left leg execute a vertical stomp on the aggressors groin region. Apply bone pressure to the aggressors Achilles tendon by rotating your right radius up into it.
Maintain pressure on the aggressors Achilles tendon throughout the movement. Slowly straighten your back and look up to increase the pressure for the submission. Stand quickly arching your back for the joint destruction. Opponents trapped foot should be snug in the students right armpit. To be proficient in ground fighting, students must practice under the guidance of a trained Martial Arts Instructor Trainer who can fault check performance and provide feedback. Sustainment of these skills requires regular practice of the techniques.
To be proficient as a citizen we must constantly develop our skills and understanding of our responsibility to our nation. A citizen is a person who owes loyalty to and is entitled by birth or nationalization to the protection of a state or a nation. He is entitled to vote and enjoy other privledges there.
A citizen also has duties and responsibilities that stem from his rights and privledges. As a member of the armed forces you understand some of these duties and have already done much to contribute to our country and its citizens. But as a Marine you know that we continually develop ourselves and seek self-improvement.
Additionally, citizenship is the fifth stage of the transformation we undergo by becoming Marines. Part of the process of being a citizen is developing the knowledge, skills, and values it takes to be a citizen, in ourselves and in others. A basic, working knowledge of our countrys history is a solid base to begin with when building a productive member of society. You should be familiar with our The Constitution, which you have sworn to protect and defend, and is in the Commandants reading list. Familiarity with The Bill of Rights and how they came about can deepen your grasp on our countrys history.
Understanding how we fit into world history can help us understand many of the twists and turns the United States has been through, from its inception up to he present day. There is an old maxim that states that, those who do not learn from historys mistakes are doomed to repeat them. In the military it is important to know how our chain of command works. Similarly, as a citizen, we need to know how our government works. Many of the skills we develop as citizens, such as voting and taking an active role in our An uninformed decision can often do more damage than no decision at all.
Keeping in tune with current events also assists us in our path toward becoming solid citizens. Understanding international events can help us understand the bigger issues that, as Marines, we are often called apon to help resolve. It can also help us understand some of the bigger issues that lead to decisions that affect us as citizens and Marines. Voting based on our knowledge of the issues, current events, and a cantidates platform is one of the basic rights and responsibilities we enjoy as a citizen.
Being proactive takes a little more work and dedication. Being attuned to developing situations often allows us to take action on issues before they spin out of control. Critical thinking allows us to take all of the information presented to us and determine priorities and logical, workable courses of action. These values should lead us to make a positive impact or contribution to society. They should inspire us to be better leaders and set the example, encouraging others to develop as citizens of this great country.
4 Brown Belt Book PDF.pdf - MARTIAL ARTS CENTER OF...
We have just trained and practiced brown belt ground fighting techniques and also discussed citizenship and its importance as a Marine, are there any questions? Having a knowledge of the techniques for ground fighting or citizenship will do us no good if we do not spend the time developing those skills. We must use our knowledge to train our skills and increase our abilities in an engagement and as citizens everyday. The values we are imbued with and take the time to develop will guide us in the application of our ground fighting and citizenship skills. The priority in ground fighting is to get back on your feet as quickly as possible.
However, often a ground fight can be ended quickly by executing a choke on the opponent. It is your responsibility to ensure training is safe while ensuring students learn the techniques for chokes. Counseling is also your responsibility in that it is the part of leadership which ensures, by mutual understanding, that the efforts of leaders and their Marines are continuously directed toward unit readiness and effective individual performance.
As such one important skill that every leader must possess is the ability to communicate. This lesson will cover the techniques for instructing ground chokes, including front, side, rear, and figure-four chokes. It will also cover communication and the process of counseling. Topics from this lesson will be evaluated via a written test and a performance checklist during practical applications conducted during belt testing.
As discussed in the previous lesson on chokes, there are strict safety precautions pertaining to the training of chokes. These precautions also apply to ground fighting chokes. To prevent injury to students during training, ensure the following: 55 MIN. The student "taps out" by firmly tapping his hand several times on any part of the opponent's body that will get his attention. The student should never go to the point of becoming light headed during a choke.
During training ensure students apply the procedures properly for blood chokes and do not execute air chokes. Always ensure that the safety precautions are observed. The ground front choke is a blood choke performed most effectively from the mount position, but can also be executed from other positions.
The front choke employs the aggressors collar to execute the choke. To teach the ground front choke walk students through the technique, step by step, working hand and arm placement and execution. To teach the ground front choke, have the student: 1 Begin in the mount position. Attempt to make your thumbs touch. Confirm by questions and practice.
A ground front choke is an effective technique when you are facing an opponent in the mount position. However, if your opponent is not wearing a lapel or collar, a ground side choke can also be executed when facing an opponent in the mount position. The ground fighting side choke is a blood choke performed from the mount position. The ground fighting side choke is particularly effective when the opponent raises his arms and places them on your chest or throat.
To teach the ground fighting side choke have the student: 1 Begin with the Marine facing the aggressor in the mount. Your right palm should be face down with fingers extended and your thumb pointing toward you. The aggressors right arm should be over your right shoulder. This is done by pulling your clasped hands toward your chest. At the same time, push up with your shoulder and head against the aggressors triceps, driving his shoulder into his right carotid artery.
This allows you to apply pressure to both carotid arteries and not the trachea or windpipe. The side and front chokes are effective techniques when you are facing your opponent in the mount position. A ground fighting rear choke can be executed when you are behind an opponent.
The ground rear choke is a blood choke performed when you are behind the opponent. To teach the ground fighting rear choke, have the student: 1 Begin sitting on the ground with the aggressor sitting between your legs with his back to your chest. Do not cross your ankles at any time. This compromises your position and makes you vulnerable to counter-attack. Use your insteps and toes to make constant pressure on the aggressors thighs.
Note: Do not try to get your toes under the aggressors legs. Figure-Four Variation 1 Follow steps one through three for the rear choke. To be effective, you must be able to demonstrate the techniques as well as fault check students and provide feedback. We will now practice the techniques for fault checking performance of ground fighting chokes 4. Proficiency in executing ground chokes and fault checking performance will come with practice and experience. Throughout training, enforce safety precautions and the proper execution of the techniques for chokes. Just as we watch each other and give each other feedback when practicing techniques, the The Marine Corps counseling program consists of two parts.
The second part and what we are going to focus on today is performance counseling which focuses on the Marine's future. These two program parts are considered to be separate but complementary. Performance counseling should be a two-way communication between the junior and senior that is positive and forward looking with the ultimate purpose of developing the individual Marine. The aim is to strengthen an individual's performance to make our unit more capable of going places and achieving objectives.
The counseling process is broken down into three types of counseling sessions: initial, follow-on, and event related. These are classified as formal counseling of which initial and follow-on sessions are considered formal counseling. The characteristics of a formal counseling session are that it is planned: a The senior evaluates how the Marine has been doing. How much time should you set aside for a formal counseling session? The answer is to make sure you don't shortchange the Marine.
You must allow sufficient time to focus on the junior's overall performance and SPECIFIC expected accomplishments over the next several weeks or months. The initial counseling session is the first time the two of you formally sit down and discuss the future of the junior Marine. This session should lay the ground work for the continuing professional relationship.
They should also jointly arrive at targets for the junior to meet before the next session. Here the individual's progress is monitored, any problems are worked on, and senior and junior plan future targets for the next period. The event-related counseling is also known as the spot correction. You notice a deficiency in performance, error in judgment or lapse of discipline and you take immediate corrective action. As such it is done on the spot and usually with no documentation until after the counseling is completed.
Now let's look at the actual parts of a formal counseling session. These are the five elements. The preparation phase is where the seniors make their money. You should: 1 Review the Marine's current performance in relation to the previous targets that were set. Directive senior does the talking , Nondirective junior does the talking , Collaborative both do the talking.
Once the preparation phase is done you are actually ready to conduct the session. The Marine will formally report to you and you should set him at ease by making some small talk or maybe offering him some coffee. This is when you review the Marine's progress against previous targets and develop a plan and targets for the next period. If he feels that he has input into his own future, he will be that much more inclined to excel. At this point, you must ensure the Marine understands the targets and is committed to them. If you don't summarize what conclusions have been reached, you risk having the Marine leave without being on your "sheet of music.
Two things occur during this last element of a formal session: documentation and follow-up. Documentation is not mandatory, but highly recommended. You can use the forms located in the Marine Corps guide for counseling, which contains one example for lance corporals and below and one form for corporals and above. An initial counseling session must occur according to the Marine Corps order within 30 days of the establishment of a new senior subordinate relationship. This occurs when the new leader joins a unit or a new Marine joins the unit.
A platoon commander will normally counsel all of his Marines. This does not relieve subordinate leaders from counseling. This counseling will probably be more detailed than the platoon commanders. Additionally, the platoon commanders counseling should compliment the subordinate leaders counseling.
It is clear that lance corporals and below must receive a follow-on session every 30 days. These Marines have the most developing to do and need frequent feedback. For corporals and above, once the initial counseling session is done, a follow-on counseling session must occur within 90 days. After that a follow-on session must be done at least every six months. The above are only guidelines for the minimum counseling requirements. Good leaders counsel their subordinates as often as necessary in order to develop their subordinates as well as improve unit readiness.
Chokes are effective techniques for quickly ending a fight on the ground. Chokes can be easily performed regardless of size or gender. Therefore, a student learning the technique may not realize its swift effectiveness in injuring an opponent. As a leader it is your responsibility to communicate with subordinates. The Marine Corps has standardized this process with its counseling program.
We have discussed what this program is, the types of counseling, the elements of a counseling session and the frequency of counseling. In any combative confrontation, you need to maintain the tactical advantage. Throws allow you to gain that advantage by taking your opponent to the deck while you remain standing. Throws use the principles of offbalancing by using the momentum and power generated by the opponent to move or throw them. They are size and strength neutral as well and can be very devastating techniques to an opponent if applied efficiently.
This lesson will cover the three parts of a throw, techniques for training off-balancing and the major outside reap. We will also discuss Cohesion, how it affects us as Marines, and why it is so important. The learning objectives pertaining to this lesson are as follows: a. This class will be taught by EDIP and guided discussion. Topics from this lesson will be evaluated by performance when requirements are met.
Probe Students Now, we will cover an introduction to throws and the safety precautions used when training them. The purpose of a throw is to bring an opponent to the deck to gain the tactical advantage in a fight. Throws apply the principles of balance, leverage, timing, and body position to upset an opponent's balance and to gain control by forcing the opponent to the deck.
When executing a throw, it is important to maintain control of your own balance and simultaneously, to prevent the opponent from countering a throw or escaping after he is forced to the deck. To prevent injury during training, ensure the following: 1 Select a training area with soft footing such as a sandy or grassy area.
If training mats are available, use them. A flight deck or hard surface area is not 42 85 MIN. To reduce head and neck injuries, ensure chins are tucked and hand placement is correct so students' heads do not hit the deck during the fall. Now that we have covered our safety precautions, we will talk about the three parts of a throw. The first part of a throw is the entry. Your entry needs to be quick and un-telegraphed to prevent your opponent from anticipating your movement and countering your attack. You also want to make sure that your body positioning is correct in relation to your opponent to allow for proper off-balancing and execution of the throw.
In any Martial Arts scenario, it is important for you to maintain your own balance. The last place you want to be in a Martial Arts confrontation is on the deck. Keep a strong base, a low center of balance, feet shoulder width apart, and stay on your toes to enable you to move quickly.
You must maintain your own balance during entry. The second part of a throw is off-balancing. Off-balancing techniques are used to control an opponent by using the momentum of the opponent to move or throw him. Off-balancing techniques can be used to throw an opponent to the deck while you remain standing, or they can be used to put you in a position for a strike, a choke, etc. Off-balancing also aids in execution of throws because your opponent is unable to fight your attack with full strength due to being off-balanced.
Angles of Off-balancing. There are eight angles or directions in which an opponent can be off-balanced. Imagine the angles at your feet labeled with forward, rear, right, left, forward right, forward left, rear right, and rear left. Off-balancing Techniques. An opponent can be off balanced by pushing or pulling. An opponent can be pulled or pushed with your hands, arms, or body. Pulling is performed by grabbing an opponent with your hands and driving him forcefully to one of the rear quadrants or right or left.
Pushing is performed by grabbing the opponent with your hands and driving him forcefully into one of the front quadrants or right or left. Bumping is executed in the same manner as pushing, but without using your hands to grab the opponent. Instead, you use other parts of your body such as your shoulders, hips, and legs. Principles of Off-balancing. For example, if the opponent is charging at you, you can pull him to drive him to the deck.
Likewise, if the opponent is pulling on you, you can push him to drive him to the deck. In combat, you are often tired and may be outnumbered. Depending on the generated energy and momentum of the opponent, you can employ these techniques with very little effort and still provide effective results. Practical Application for Off-balancing. Designate one student as the opponent and the other to perform off-balancing. Ensure students push or pull just enough to see that the opponent is off-balanced, not to drive the opponent to the deck.
When the opponent takes a step back or forward, he is offbalanced and compensating to maintain his balance. Ensure students push or pull just enough to see that the opponent is offbalanced, not to drive the opponent to the deck. When the opponent takes a step back or forward, he is off-balanced and compensating to maintain his balance. Fault check student performance. Enforce safety precautions. The third and final piece of a throw is the execution.
Whatever steps remain in the throw to take the opponent to the deck are utilized here. Each piece before this is just to set up and assist in this final process. We have covered the three parts of a throw so far. Now, we will talk. Major Outside Reap Opponent Pushing. A major outside reap can be used to take the opponent to the deck while you remain standing. It is particularly effective if the opponent is already off-balanced and pushing on you and defending against the leg sweep.
Major Outside Reap Opponent Pulling. It is particularly effective if the opponent is already off-balanced and pulling on you and defending against the leg sweep. This throw can be very useful in a combative engagement due to the ease of execution. No matter how many throws you know, without the help from your fellow Marines, the mission will never be completed. Marines count on one That is why cohesion is so important to Marines, units, and the Marine Corps. Cohesion is the intense bonding of Marines, strengthened over time, that results in absolute trust.
It is characterized by the subordination of self and an intuitive understanding of the collective actions of the unit and of the importance of teamwork, resulting in increased combat power. Cohesion is achieved by fostering positive peer pressure and reinforcing our core values to the point that our core values become dominant over self-interest. A good example of this esprit is when the individual Marine risks his life to aid a fellow Marine or to accomplish the mission at hand.
An example is that of a trapped Marine division that bravely fought its way across the frozen wastes of Korea, through six communist divisions, to the sea. Cohesion provides Marines with supportive relationships that buffer stress and increases their ability to accomplish the mission or task. Strong unit cohesion results in increased combat power and the achievement of greater successes. There are five dimensions of cohesion: individual morale, confidence in the units combat capability, confidence in unit leaders, horizontal cohesion, and vertical cohesion.
In combination, these dimensions dramatically affect the capabilities of a unit. Historically, the Corps has fostered individual morale, confidence in the units combat capability, and confidence in unit leaders. We understand the benefits attained through developing and maintaining high morale, and we have always stressed the technical and tactical proficiency of every Marine. Equally, our Corps has always emphasized the importance of developing solid, trustworthy leaders. Our reputation is built on the emphasis our fore bearers put on these three dimensions of cohesion.
The remaining two dimensions, horizontal and vertical cohesion, are also of equal importance to combat readiness. As leaders, we must know our Marines and look out for their welfare. Leaders who understand that morale, only morale, individual morale as a foundation under training and discipline, will bring victory are more likely to keep morale high among individual Marines. A high state of morale, in turn, enhances unit cohesion and combat effectiveness. Marines confidence in their units combat capability is gained through unit training. The longer Marines serve and train together in a unit, the more effective they become and the more confident they are in their units capabilities.
They know what their unit can do because they have worked together before. Keeping Marines together through unit cohesion is a combat multiplier. Rarely do those who maintain confidence in their unit and in their fellow Marines lose battles. Success in battle can be directly attributed to a units overall confidence in its level of performance. If the history of military organizations proves anything, it is that those units that are told they are second-class will almost inevitably prove that they are second-class. Confidence in unit leaders abilities is earned as Marines spend time in the company of their seniors and learn to trust them.
Leaders must earn the respect of their Marines, and doing so takes time. As Marines develop confidence, based on their prior achievements, in their units ability to accomplish their assigned missions, they also develop confidence in their leaders as they work and train together. Horizontal cohesion, also known as peer bonding, takes place among peers.
It is the building of a sense of trust and familiarity between individuals of the same rank or position. Sense of mission, teamwork, personnel stability, technical and tactical proficiency, trust, respect, and friendship are some elements that contribute to peer bonding. An example of horizontal cohesion is the relationship between members of a fire team. Over time, each member develops a sense of trust in the other. This trust is born of several elements. The first is a common sense of mission, the act of placing personal goals aside to pursue the goals of the entire team.
Other elements include teamwork and personnel stability. Teamwork is the result of mutual support provided by each member of the team. Teamwork is further enhanced by personnel stability, which promotes familiar and effective working relationships. Perhaps most important is the development of tactical and technical proficiency that continues to support and reinforce the trust and respect between the team members. Shared hardship also promotes horizontal cohesion. Vertical cohesion is not new to our Corps; this dimension of cohesion involves the vertical relationship between subordinate and senior.
Vertical cohesion is what draws peer groups into a cohesive unit, such as a battalion or squadron. It is, in part, the building of a mutual sense of trust and respect among individuals of different rank or position. Additionally, vertical cohesion is the sense of belonging that the squad or section maintains relative to its role in the battalion or squadron. Some characteristics of vertical cohesion include unit pride and history, leaders concern for the Marines, leaders example, trust and respect for leaders, and shared discomfort and danger.
Since the birth of our Corps, Marine units have evidenced horizontal and vertical cohesion to varying degrees and with varying success. However, it is vitally important that these two qualities be developed in combination with each other. Just as the strength of combined arms comes from the combined effects of two or more different arms that mutually support one another, the strength of horizontal and vertical cohesion derives from the combined effects and mutual support they provide each other.
Blending vertical cohesion and horizontal cohesion ensures a strong, universal sense of bonding and teamwork among various types of units. If vertical and horizontal cohesion are mutually supported, all these units will be composed of Marines who trust and respect each other. Each type of bond reinforces the other.
Cohesion is a huge part of how well Marines and units function. It is up to us to maintain and continue to build cohesion in our units to ensure the Marines around us understand the value of cohesion. Throwing techniques rely on off-balancing to throw an opponent to the deck while you remain standing, thereby gaining the tactical advantage. They are useful tools in many different situations but they also require a lot of work to improve and maintain. Cohesion is the same way. Cohesion is the glue that binds Marines and units to each other.
It is an invisible force more powerful than any physical device that will cause Marines to hold the line under the most adverse conditions. It is a force multiplier that can ensure success against overwhelming odds. As leaders we must strive to develop all five components of cohesion in our unit. Different weapons are employed by different groups of people or cultures. When deployed to an unfamiliar region of the world, you must become familiar with the techniques that culture uses to fight and the weapons they employ.
If you are caught in a situation where you are unarmed and have no available weapon, would you be able to respond if attacked by an armed opponent? To be proficient, Marines must continually train to sustain these skills. As Marines, we are also held to a higher standard than others. Discipline is one of those standards; the Law of War holds us to that standard in combat.
Warriors in the past had similar laws or codes to keep them from abusing their skills and abilities. This lesson will cover the techniques for instructing blocks and counters for unarmed against hand-held weapon attacks. We will also discuss the purpose and relevance of the Law of War, as well as some other aspects that we must abide by as Marines on the battlefield.
This class will be taught by informal lecture and E. P method. Topics from this lesson will be evaluated via a written and performance evaluation; make sure you check your schedule for time and date. Are there any questions on the purpose, learning objectives, or how you will be evaluated?
Now lets talk about the safeties that you will adhere to, as well as some of the basics you need to know. To prevent injury to students, ensure the following: 1 This training must be closely supervised. Strikes and joint manipulations should not be executed at full force or full speed because they can injure the student. In reality, an attacker is not going to stand there and let you take him.
He will be fighting as much as you. However, have students perform the techniques slowly at first, and increase the speed of execution of each technique, as well as the opponent's attack, as they become more proficient. The student "taps out" by firmly tapping a hand several times on any part of the opponent's body that will get his attention. In any engagement against an knife, a stick, or some other weapon of opportunity -- do not go into it thinking you are going to get cut or hurt.
You must establish and retain a mindset to go on the offensive rather than be on the defensive. Survival depends on it. Principles of Counters. A counter is used to control the situation to regain the tactical advantage and end the fight. Regardless of the type of weapon or angle of attack, the following principles apply to countering the attack with a hand-held weapon: 1 The first action taken in a counter is to move out of the line of attack. Movement is executed in a degree angle forward to the left or right. The first and second actions are taken simultaneously.
Never attempt to grab the opponent's weapon. You should continue your assault on the opponent until you end the fight. Counter Techniques. There are four techniques that can be used to counter any armed attack: forward armbar counter and reverse armbar counter. These techniques can be used to counter a forward diagonal strike or a forward horizontal strike. With minor variations, the same techniques are used to counter reverse strikes. A third technique, the bent armbar counter, is used to counter a vertical attack, also a counter to a straight thrust.
Are there any questions on the safeties, principles, mindset, or some of the counters you will be learning? Lets now discuss the techniques you will be learning for unarmed versus handheld. In addition, the attacker is attacking with his right hand. After all steps are explained, demonstrated, and imitated, allow time for students to practice the entire procedure on you command.
To train the counter for a straight thrust, have the student: 1 Start from the basic warrior stance, facing the aggressor who attacks with a straight thrust. This action is known as "hollowing out. Forward Armbar Counter. To train the forward armbar counter to an attack coming from a forward strike, have the student: 1 Face the aggressor in the basic warrior stance.
The aggressor attacks with a forward strike coming in anywhere from a degree angle of attack to parallel to the deck. His forearm should be under your armpit with your left forearm making pressure on the aggressors right elbow. Reverse Armbar Counter.
To train the reverse armbar counter to an attack coming from a reverse strike, have the student: 1 Face the aggressor in the basic warrior stance. The aggressor attacks with a reverse strike coming in anywhere from a degree angle of attack, to parallel to the ground. Immediately over hook the aggressors right arm with your left and wrap your arm tightly around his arm, trapping his attacking arm between your biceps and torso.
You must control the aggressor's arm on his elbow to affect an armbar from this position. Bent Armbar Counter. This counter is particularly effective against a vertical attack. To train the bent armbar counter, have the student: 1 Face the aggressor in a basic warrior stance.
The aggressor attacks with a vertical strike. At the same time, slide your right arm underneath his triceps and hook his forearm or wrist with your right hand, hand over hand, bringing your elbows close together. In order to demonstrate the techniques we have discussed, you must become proficient in executing each technique.
We will now practice performing the techniques as well as instructing and fault checking the techniques for unarmed against hand-held weapon attacks. Designate a third student to serve as instructor to fault check execution of the techniques. Rotate students after each execution of each technique.
Allow students approximately 45 minutes to practice the techniques. Fault check student performance for instructing and performing the techniques. Are there any questions on the mindset, principles, or any of the techniques we have covered? As leaders of Marines we must ensure our Marines are trained in the art of war, but more importantly we must make sure they are trained as ethical warriors. The Law of War is put in place for that reason. Discipline in combat is essential. Violations of the Law of War have an adverse impact on public opinion, both nationally and internationally.
Violation of the law of war can actually strengthen the enemys will to fight. In fact, they have, on occasion, served to prolong a conflict by inciting an opponent to continue resistance. Violations of these principles prejudice the good order and discipline essential to success in combat.
Other Codes that work in conjunction with The Law of War: If you take a look at the law of war you will see that without some of the other codes and values the Marine Corps instills in us, combined with our upbringing, you will find that it is not that difficult to enforce. Such as the code of conduct, the Marine Corps values of: honor, courage, and commitment. It is nothing more than doing what is right, as much as possible, even on the battlefield. If you take a look at many of the different warrior cultures of the past, you will find that most of them had their own ethical or moral code that they must abide by.
Are there any questions on the law of war or the importance of having them? When deployed to an unfamiliar region of the world, you must become familiar with the techniques that the culture uses to fight with and the weapons they employ. As a Martial Arts Instructor Trainer, you are responsible for training unarmed against hand-held weapon techniques. These skills must be continually trained to retain proficiency. This lesson covered angles of attack, blocks, and counters to hand We also covered the importance of the law of war, and why it is so important that we live by these laws as well as some of the other codes the Marine Corps has in place to ensure that we fight ethically and morally in battle, as we do in our day-to-day lives in peace.
Remember, your skill level alone does not make you a warrior, you must have the right mindset and virtues to know when to use it. That is what makes you a warrior. Many Marines are armed with the M9 service pistol. It is the responsibility of the Marine to keep his weapon in his possession at all times. A Marine must be constantly alert to his surroundings and the people moving in and around the environment. It is possible the Marine may be placed in a situation where an individual tries to take his weapon.
To retain positive control of his weapon, the Marine must understand and be able to apply weapons retention techniques. As a Martial Arts Instructor Trainer, you will be responsible for training weapons retention techniques and instilling these skills in Marines armed with the pistol. Firearm retention techniques are designed to provide the Marine with the skills necessary to maintain positive control of their weapon and if necessary restrain an opponent attempting to disarm them.
To retain your weapon is imperative, but there is something else that is important to retain, the history and traditions of our Corps. One of the ways we do this is by performing and attending Band of Brothers events. The history and traditions of our Corps, has made us a cohesive unit, which has helped make us the elite fighting force we are today. This lesson will cover the techniques for instructing firearm retention techniques to include a blocking technique, an armbar technique, and a wristlock technique to include fault checking procedures and the safety precautions inherent in instructing these techniques.
It will also cover the discussion topic of Band of Brothers. Topics from this lesson will be evaluated by a performance evaluation and an oral evaluation. Are there any questions on the purpose, the learning objectives, or how you will be evaluated? Pistol retention techniques employ joint manipulation techniques and pressure points previously taught in the Martial Arts Instructor Course. We will begin by discussing safety precautions during training. A weapons retention technique is used to retain your weapon if an opponent tries to grab it.
You will be going to the ground. Are there any questions on the purpose or safeties you will be using for this period of instruction? Like the other skills taught in this course, pistol retention techniques must be trained by a qualified Martial Arts Instructor Trainer who can set up and conduct training that is safe and effective.
Lefthanded students should reverse instructions as necessary. Blocking Technique. If an opponent attempts to grab your pistol in the holster, perform the following blocking technique: 1 While facing the aggressor he attempts to grab your holstered pistol with his right hand. Pistol Retention Techniques. If an opponent is successful in grabbing your pistol in the holster, use a pistol retention technique to retain your weapon.
Pistol retention techniques employ joint manipulation. Armbar Technique. This technique is used when an opponent grabs your pistol in the holster with his right hand. It also works if you are left-handed and the opponent grabs your pistol with his left hand. To train the armbar technique, have the student: 1 Begin with the aggressor facing you and grabbing the pistol in your holster with his right hand. The aggressors trapped arm should be straight across your torso. From here you should be able to control and take down the aggressor. In the case that you are unable to control the situation in this manner and the aggressor is fighting to straighten up, execute the following steps.
Maintain control of the aggressors right hand at your right side the entire time. Wristlock Technique. To train the wristlock technique, have the student: 1 Begin with the aggressor facing you and grabbing the pistol in your holster with his right hand. Pivot your left hand to trap the aggressors right hand, so your forearm is parallel with the aggressors attacking arm. Step back with your left foot, pivot to your left to off-balance the aggressor and drive him to the ground. Same Side Grab Front. This technique is used when an opponent grabs your pistol in the holster with his left hand.
To train the technique, have the student: 1 Begin with the aggressor facing you and grabbing the pistol in your holster with his left hand. Striking surface will be the webbing between thumb and pointer finger. Same Side Grab Rear. To train the technique, have the student: 1 Begin with the aggressor behind you and grabbing the pistol in your holster with his right hand. Bring up the left hand to support the right hand by grabbing the aggressors hand in between both hands, mimic praying. Apply downward pressure on his hand against the chest. Leave the aggressors hand on the chest The aggressors hand should be rotated degrees so his palm is facing left.
Distracter Techniques. Pistol retention techniques employ pressure points to apply distracter techniques. Bone pressure and strikes with the hands i. Bone pressure is the application of pressure on a bone against a hard object to initiate pain compliance. To apply bone pressure, trap the opponent's hand on the weapon with your hand.
Apply a slow, steady pressure on his hand and fingers against the hardness of the weapon until his grip is softened or he releases his grip. If you find it difficult to apply a retention technique, you can strike or kick the opponent to cause the opponent to loosen his grip. Pressure point techniques can also be used to get the opponent to loosen his grip. Pressure can be effectively applied using your fingertips to pressure points such as the webbing between the index finger and thumb, the jugular notch, and the brachial plexus tie in.
Are there any questions on the techniques we have just covered? As part of your duties as a Martial Arts Instructor Trainer, you will be responsible for training weapons retention techniques with the pistol. We will now practice the techniques for fault checking student performance. Confirm by practice. Practice in weapons retention techniques under the supervision of a Martial Arts Instructor Trainer will greatly enhance the Marine's ability to retain his weapon.
Are there any questions on anything we have covered so far? Just like retaining your weapon is imperative to your survival, it is imperative to the Corps survival to retain the history and traditions that has made us a Band of Brothers. This spirit is too fine a thing to be allowed to die. It must be fostered and kept alive and made the moving force in all Marine Corps organizations.
Lejeune a. As part of our transformation into Marines we are introduced to the history, customs, courtesies and traditions that are unique to our Corps. These traditions are part of the rich heritage of our Corps and are tied to the legacy of past generations of Marines. This legacy was established by the actions, sacrifices, and shared experiences of countless Marines. It is what binds all Marines into a Band of Brothers. It not only links us to the Marines of yesteryear, but through our shared experiences it binds us to the Marines we are currently serving with. As noted in Major General Lejeunes quote above, the spirit that is evoked by the concept of a Band of Brothers is something special that must be kept alive.
This concept is based upon cohesion, camaraderie and esprit dcorps. The responsibility to maintain this spirit rests with every Marine, regardless of rank or length of service. One way that we can perpetuate this spirit and ensure that we remain a Band of Brothers is by participation in traditional events that foster camaraderie and cohesion.
We are all members of the same great family. On social occasions the formality of strictly military occasions should be relaxed, and a spirit of friendliness and good will should prevail. Lejeune b.
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Again we turn to our 13th Commandant for guidance on what it means to develop and maintain the tie of the Band of Brothers. The Band of Brothers events are the social occasions when Marines gather together to celebrate and keep alive our traditions as well as to enjoy each others company. Marines hold a special place in the military establishment for many well-known reasons. Because of the high standing the Corps enjoys, every Marine owes it to himself and to the Corps to be a model not only in combat and on parade, but also on social occasions as well. Being a Marine therefore puts you in a very special group.
Like most special groups, the Corps has its own well-established rules, customs, and privileges that in effect add up to a code of social behavior for you, and for your family, too. This code shouldnt make you feel that rigid conformity is required everywhere and in every detail. As a matter of fact, there is probably no military group in the world where social and professional individuality are more appreciated, than among Marines.
In the good sense of the phrase, a Marine need never be afraid of developing into a character - which really means not being afraid to be yourself. For a warrior this means being able to relax and have fun while always doing the right thing. The following are examples of traditional of social functions: 1 Marine Corps Birthday. When you joined the Marine Corps you voluntarily accepted the Marine Corps as your way of life whether for 4 years or You became part of a warrior culture and a way of life that demands commitment far above that of a job.
It means living by our Core Values, selflessness, sacrifice, and commitment. You will find that the time and effort of this commitment will bring you a lifetime of camaraderie and enjoyment. Maybe now you can see the importance of the Band of Brothers concept, and how much stronger it makes our Marine Corps.
Weapons retention techniques are used to retain your weapon and get an opponent to release his grip if he tries to grab it in your holster. Weapons retention techniques employ joint manipulation and bone pressure. This lesson covered weapons retention techniques for the pistol. Once Marines are trained in the techniques and understand and can apply the techniques, they can use them in a variety of situations to retain their weapons.
In order to continue the legacy of excellence passed down by Marines of the past and retain our traditions each of use must practice those traditions on a regular basis. It will not only ensure that our continued existence, it will also strengthen the ties that make us the premier fighting force in the world and a special Band of Brothers. Imagine you are in an unfamiliar area in an urban environment and you turn a corner and a gun is pointed directly at your head. Would you know what to do?
Would your reaction time be quick enough to counter the situation? Firearm disarmament techniques are designed to counter such a confrontation while permitting you to gain the tactical advantage against an adversary. This lesson will cover firearm disarmament techniques including safety precautions inherent in training and techniques to counter an adversary armed with a pistol. It will also cover leadership roles. Topics from this lesson will be evaluated via a written test and via a performance checklist during practical applications conducted during lessons.